Help me study for my Business class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

# Module 3 – SLP

## Obtaining the Data for the Research Context

Descriptive statistics are used to learn about the characteristics of a measure that is collected over time or may be a measure of an item from a survey administered to many people. Typically, descriptive statistics are the average score (mean), the maximum, the minimum in the scores along with the variation. Descriptive statistics is used to describe the measures rather than to make inference centered around the same item or conceptual construct being measured. Thus, descriptive statistics is not inferential statistics and does not use probability to infer behaviors of a population from which the measures were drawn.

Descriptive statistics fits the background analysis for your firm selected for your dissertation. Here you have financial and performance measures of the firm with respect to others in the same competitive space. In most cases descriptive measures can be used to generate trend lines to try and forecast based on past measures.

Here is a descriptive spreadsheet for the United Way of Orange County that shows the average and standard deviation for revenues and expenses from the 990 Report we looked at in SLP 2. Here in this spreadsheet Figure 4 (click the image to open the file) you see by clicking the various tabs on the lower part of the spreadsheet graphs that can be generated from this 990 data. Columns F and G have the average and standard deviation of the revenue and expense measures, but they are rather static. To use the years of revenue and expense measures, you can click the Forecast Sheet tab on your tool bar. This is how the graphs for Revenues, Expenses, and Net were produced where a technique called exponential smoothly is used that factors in the four years of data to produce the trend lines in the forecast.

Figure 4.

Chapter 18 in:
Carlberg, C. (2016). Excel sales forecasting for dummies, 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons. Available in the Trident Online Library: Follow these instructions for Finding Skillsoft Books. Enter 132620 in the search bar.

### SLP Assignment Expectations

Now examine the secondary data you have on your firm from SLP 2 or add more to the data as needed. Look at the sample and review the Excel book and particularly the one on Exponential Smoothing. Calculate some descriptive statistics for your data and prepare some forecast charts. Remember the Forecast Sheet tool on the upper toolbar next to What If Analysis. Produce a spreadsheet with associated graphs; also provide a page or two to discuss this data analysis and the conclusions you have drawn. Add this to the growing work you have on the Background for the firm you are studying.

Assignment-Driven Criteria: Student demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment.

Critical Thinking/Application to Professional Practice: Student demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem and analyzing information. Conclusions are logically presented and applied to professional practice in an exceptional manner.

Business Writing and Quality of References: Student demonstrates mastery and proficiency in written communication and use of appropriate and relevant literature at the doctoral level.

Citing Sources: Student demonstrates mastery applying APA formatting standards to both in-text citations and the reference list.

Professionalism and Timeliness: Assignments are submitted on time.

# Module 3 – Background

## Obtaining the Data for the Research Context

Barnett, J., Vasileiou, K. Thorpe, S., and Young, T. (2015, January). Justifying the adequacy of samples in qualitative interview-based studies: Differences between and within journals. In Quality in qualitative research and enduring problematics. Symposium conducted by the faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Bath, Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. Retrieved May 10, 2018, from http://www.bath.ac.uk/sps/events/Documents/27_jan_2015_slides/julie_barnett.pdf

Chapters 1-4 in:
Carlberg, C. (2016). Excel sales forecasting for dummies, 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons. Available in the Trident Online Library: Follow these instructions for Finding Skillsoft Books. Enter 132620 in the search bar.

Preface in:
Dean, S., & Illowsky, B. (2014). Collaborative Statistics. Connexions: Rice University. Creative Commons License 3.0. Retrieved from https://cnx.org/contents/XgdE-Z55@40.9:LnCgyaMt@17/Preface

Chapter 1 in:
Dean, S., & Illowsky, B. (2014). Collaborative Statistics. Connexions: Rice University. Creative Commons License 3.0. Retrieved from https://cnx.org/contents/gLOpQmDR@1.28:AkLGjuVA@15/Video-Lecture-1-Sampling-and-Data

Dudovskiy, J. (n.d.) Sampling. Retrieved May 10, 2018, from the Research Methodology website at https://research-methodology.net/sampling-in-primary-data-collection/

Råheim, M., Magnussen, L. H., Sekse, R., Lunde, A., Jacobsen, T., & Blystad, A. (2016). Researcher–researched relationship in qualitative research: Shifts in positions and researcher vulnerability. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 11, 10.3402/qhw.v11.30996. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/qhw.v11.30996

Rowley, J. (2014). Designing and using research questionnaires. Management Research Review. Retrieved May 10, 2018, from https://e-space.mmu.ac.uk/579515/1/Designing%20and%20using%20Research%20QuestionnairesREV18042013.pdf

Stockberger, D. (2016). Introductory statistics: Concepts, models, and applications. Missouri State University. Retrieved from http://www.psychstat.missouristate.edu/introbook/sbk19.htm

Taherdoost, H. (2016). Sampling methods in research methodology: How to choose a sampling technique for research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM ), 5(2), 18–27.

Yip, C., Han, N., & Sng, B. (2016). Legal and ethical issues in research. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 60(9), 684–688. Retrieved from http://www.ijaweb.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5049;year=2016;volume=60;issue=9;spage=684;epage=688;aulast=Yip

### Video Material

Excel Campus – Jon. (2015, February 4). Introduction to pivot tables, charts and dashboards in Excel (part 1) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9NUjHBNWe9M

### Excel Resources

Brown, N., Lave, B., Romey, J., Schatz, M., & Shingledecker, M. (2018) Beginning Excel. OpenOregon, Creative Commons License. Retrieved from https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/beginningexcel/ and https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/beginningexcel/front-matter/introduction/

ExcellsFun. (2016, May 20). Highline Excel 2016 class 15: Excel charts to visualize data: Comprehensive lesson 11 chart examples [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLmtGk7Ymy8&t=2003s

Chapter 10 in:
Harvey, G. (2016). Excel 2016 for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. Available in the Trident Online Library: Follow these instructions for Finding Skillsoft Books. Enter 117498 in the search bar.

Book II: Chapters 1–4 and
Book V: Chapter 1 in:
Harvey, G. (2016). Excel 2016 All-in-One For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. Available in the Trident Online Library: Follow these instructions for Finding Skillsoft Books. Enter 112925 in the search bar.

Kaceli, S. (2016, January 24). Excel 2016 Tutorial: A comprehensive guide on Excel for anyone