I’m stuck on a Health & Medical question and need an explanation.

In the past few modules, you have learned about different types of data sources, along with how disease is measured in populations. This discussion gives you the opportunity to see these concepts at use in the real world and discuss them with your classmates.

Choose one of the following journal articles:

(The references listed below are hyperlinked to the full text version of the articles.)

Giuliano, K. K., Baker, D., & Quinn, B. (2018). The epidemiology of nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia in the United States. American Journal of Infection Control, 46(3), 322–327. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2017.09.005 (Links to an external site.)

Heavey, S. C., Delmerico, A. M., Burstein, G., Moore, C., Wieczorek, W. F., Collins, R. L., … Homish, G. G. (2018). Descriptive Epidemiology for Community-wide Naloxone Administration by Police Officers and Firefighters Responding to Opioid Overdose. Journal of Community Health, 43(2), 304–311. doi:10.1007/s10900-017-0422-8 (Links to an external site.)

Kerr, Z. Y., Putukian, M., Chang, C. J., DiStefano, L. J., Currie, D. W., Pierpoint, L. A., … Marshall, S. W. (2018). The First Decade of Web-Based Sports Injury Surveillance: Descriptive Epidemiology of Injuries in US High School Boys’ Soccer (2005–2006 Through 2013–2014) and National Collegiate Athletic Association Men’s Soccer (2004–2005 Through 2013–2014). Journal of Athletic Training, 53(9), 893–905. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-166-17 (Links to an external site.)

After reviewing the article that you selected, please answer the following questions:

((((( I only need you to write the replies to this question I will add the classmates posts below ))))))

I did this one :

Heavey, S. C., Delmerico, A. M., Burstein, G., Moore, C., Wieczorek, W. F., Collins, R. L., … Homish, G. G. (2018). Descriptive Epidemiology for Community-wide Naloxone Administration by Police Officers and Firefighters Responding to Opioid Overdose. Journal of Community Health, 43(2), 304–311. doi:10.1007/s10900-017-0422-8 (Links to an external site.)

  1. Reply to two of your classmates, one who read the same article as you and one who chose a different article. Provide additional insight to their post, ask a question, or provide an opposing view. Replies must be thoughtful and substantive (more than a couple sentences). I will not give full credit for short answers.

Be sure to use proper English including full sentences in all of your discussion posts for this course.

Just Answer each question because it’s a discussion so not a page format. Question answer that’s it.

First student:

  1. I chose to review “Descriptive Epidemiology for Community-wide Naloxone Administration by Police Officers and Firefighters Responding to Opioid Overdose.” Researchers wanted to know if putting nalaxone in police cars and fire trucks would decrease the deaths by heroin overdose. Ultimately 800 reversal attempts by police and fire were documented and 653 (81.6%) of those were considered successful reversal attempts. 6.3% were unsuccessful and 12% had an unknown outcome due to police or fire not knowing the outcome due to EMS arrival and subsequent transport. 26% of those saved began to respond within 3 minutes, and 21.7% responded within 5 minutes. 22% did not respond to police and fire administration of nalaxone but EMS arrived. Ultimately it is evident that police and fire can reduce opioid overdose mortality.
  2. The data came from the police officers and firefighters who were on scene delivering the nalaxone. They first had no be trained on recognizing opioid overdose, how to provide nalaxone intranasally, how to report they had given and then supplied with nalaxone kits. The police officers and firefighters entered the information needed into a program called REDCap.
  3. This was a case study
  4. A few person variables mentioned were age of the individuals ranging from 15-71 years old and Gender, 70.3% were male.
  5. The epidemiologic measure used was mortality rate.
  6. I felt that this was a well written research study that answered all of my questions.

SECOND:

The article I chose: Heavey, S. C., Delmerico, A. M., Burstein, G., Moore, C., Wieczorek, W. F., Collins, R. L., … Homish, G. G. (2018). Descriptive Epidemiology for Community-wide Naloxone Administration by Police Officers and Firefighters Responding to Opioid Overdose. Journal of Community Health, 43(2), 304–311. doi:10.1007/s10900-017-0422-8

  1. This article discusses the implementation of intranasal naloxone for opioid overdoses. The amount of deaths due to overdoses has continued to increase over the years, the implementation of this drug is to help decrease those numbers. It discusses the effects and the ease of use of the medication. The medication basically works to reverse the overdose. It shows some studies on the actual use of Naloxone and for 800 attempts the drug was 81.6% successful. The article also brings up an important point that this drug should not just be something that is administered by Paramedics it should also be used among the Police force.
  2. The source came from real-life scenarios. Information was tracked from calls that Paramedics and Police responded to and when Naloxone was used the information was tracked for this study.
  3. A case report
  4. Age, Gender, geographic distribution, they also looked at the type of diagnosis in this study specifically it was the drug that caused the overdose.
  5. What epidemiologic measures were used to describe the disease? They used case fatality.
  6. I really liked this article. My husband works as a paramedic so I am very familiar with Naloxone, but I think that this study was well written and would be a good article for a person to read if they are curious about the effects and results since implementing Naloxone.

Third Student different Article:

1. The article I chose was “The epidemiology of nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia in the United States”. The article starts out by stating that hospital-acquired pneumonia is a common infection worldwide. The previous two decades of research was on ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (VAP). However, recent studies have indicated that nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) is more common than VAP. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, total hospital charges, and mortality associated with NV-HAP in US hospitals, and compare these findings to 4 group cohorts without NV-HAP. Those cohorts were: pneumonia as the primary diagnosis, unmatched random samples, matched random samples, and VAP. The incidence of NV-HAP was 1.6%. NV-HAP has hidden harm on patients and is a significant issue for patient safety. Unfortunately, it is not a widely monitored preventable infection, and many hospitals are not required to report or implement protocols to decrease the occurrences of NV-HAP. The article does state that more data and research is required to narrow the scope of this infection.

2. Many organizations were involved in this study. A project was used to collaborate with data, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). Some of the data was acquired from HCUP, a partnership between federal and state agencies and the healthcare industry. Prior to using the data from the US National Inpatient Sample (NIS), there was training required from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Data Use Agreement (DUA).

3. This was a cohort study.

4. The person variables used in this study were age, sex, and race/ethnicity. The largely started with selecting patients 18 years or older with a secondary diagnosis of pneumonia. 48.1% of patients with NV-HAP were female and 51.9% were male.

5. The epidemiological measures used in this case were total inpatient charges, patients’ length of stay (LOS) in the hospital, and mortality.

6. I felt that there was plenty of information available to me in this article. My husband works in respiratory and he talks about Hopsital-acquired infections (HAI) a lot when he comes home. I don’t think I would have given it much thought if it weren’t for him. I know HAI is always a possibility, but if it doesn’t happen to you or someone you know, it’s not a topic widely covered in the media. So, many patients do not give it a second thought.