I don’t know how to handle this Statistics question and need guidance.

Epidemiological studies are limited to a sample of individuals from a population, because it is usually impractical to include everyone. Estimates from the sample group are used to make inferences about the wider population. However, observed estimates from sub-samples of a population may differ from the estimate gained if another sub-sample of the same population had been used. Statistical methods can be used to assess the probability of obtaining an observed estimate from a sample by chance alone, and to assess the range of values within which the actual population estimate is likely to lie