I don’t understand this Psychology question and need help to study.

The average child in the United States watches four hours of television per day. As a result of this information, the impact of television as a developmental influence is a concern. However, the explosion of the internet and cellphones has the potential to affect the development of entire generations before research can even scratch the surface of its impact. Digital technology has extended the influence of peer groups to 24 hours per day. Given the influence of peers and schools as agents of socialization, what implications does this 24/7 access to these agents have on development?

In your initial post, select one concept regarding peers and one concept regarding schools, and assess each for its potential positive and negative impacts on development.

In response to your peers, debate the potential impacts and suggest healthy approaches to mitigating the negative impacts of digital technologies and peers on development.

To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.

AFTER COMPLETING THE INITIAL POST, PLEASE ALSO RESPOND TO THE FOLLOWING TWO STUDENTS REGARDING THE SAME TOPIC!


STUDENT ONE:

Peers

Social development plays a significant role in children’s adult personalities and there are many ways one can establish an environment that encourages the development of strong social skills (Davis, 2018). Social development is strongly associated with exposure to a stimulating environment. The American Academy of Pediatrics advises that exposure to television prior to the age of two can stunt developmental growth, and especially social and intellectual development. Access to a variety of toys including blocks, dolls and games encourages children to develop a variety of skills that can improve social interaction. Davis (2018) believes that a child’s environment should be interesting, diverse and free of television and he/ she will more likely develop strong social skills.

Peers have a noticeable impact on a child’s social development. By interacting with children their own age, children learn how to work together, collaborate with and relate to others. Interactions between peers promote a child’s sense of self by encouraging him or her to think of themselves in relation to others. Experiences with peers also teach children about appropriate versus inappropriate social behaviors. Peers also impact a child’s cognitive development in a variety of ways. Children learn cooperatively through partner or group activities, they share similar interests, ideas and perspectives. Children who interact with others through different learning and recreational activities are also encouraged to develop creative, problem-solving and conflict- resolution skills (Pachucki, n.d.).

Schooling

Schooling promotes cognitive development by transmitting general knowledge and by teaching children an assortment of rules, strategies, and problem-solving skills that can relate to different kinds of information (Shaffer & Kipp, 2014). While school can be a positive social experience for many children, for others it can be horrific. School is not only a place where children learn reading, writing and math. It is also a place where they learn to get along with others and develop social skills. Larson (2003) states that children do not get graded on social tests from their teachers, but their peers are constantly grading them on “social tests” every day. If a child does well on these “tests”, he/she will be well liked and happy. He/She will enjoy school and look forward to going to school. If a child fails these tests, she/he is more likely to feel detached and left out (Lawson, 2003). Failing a social test can be more painful to a child than failing a reading or science test. For some children, social skills can be the hardest subject to pass in school. Social skills play a very important role in a child’s emotional health and well-being. Without friendships, school can be a very unhappy, lonely place that a child might want to avoid (Lawson, 2003).

As parents, my husband and I encourage our kids to participate in sports at school and outside of school, so they have that sense of belonging to a team. We believe that being in a sport creates a wonderful learning environment. My children perform better in school. Our kids know if they do not do well, they will be cut from sports. That is not only our rule but the coach’s/school’s rules. We also think that being a part of a team creates peer acceptance and a bond that our kids need. Our 14-year-old had a tough time making friends when he was younger. We decided to get him involved in sports. From that point on he had a core group of friends that he saw on a regular basis. We noticed his self-esteem improve and his desire to try new things also improved. Us as parents can initially get our children involved in social activities, but our children ultimately have a choice on who they decide to hang out with, even within those activities. I hope that my children choose to hang around peers that will be a positive influence, academically and socially. I believe peers have more influence on our children more than anything else.

References:

Davis, B. (2018). Environmental factors that influence social development in children. Hello

Motherhood. Retrieved from https://www.hellomotherhood.com/environmental-factors-that-influence-social-development-in-children-8173467.html

Lawson, C. (2003). Social skills and school. Center for Development and Learning. Retrieved

from https://www.cdl.org/articles/social-skills-and-school/.

Pachucki, D. (n.d.). The effects of peers on child development. The Bump. Retrieved from

https://living.thebump.com/effects-peers-child-dev…

Shaffer, D.R. & Kipp, K. (2014). Developmental Psychology: Childhood & Adolescent (9th ed.).

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

STUDENT TWO:

Given the influence of peers and schools as agents of socialization, what implications does this 24/7 access to these agents have on development?

Raising my children in the ‘80’s there was no social media platforms, cell phones, or technology that got in the way of my children’s development. My children played outside with friends, was very active in sports, and television watching was monitored closely for amount of time watching and content of shows watched. All four of my children had consequences for grades in school, i.e. they could not participate in sports if their grades were not adequate.

As I watch my grandchildren today it amazes me how much time they stay on their game systems and don’t play outside, how their faces are in their cell phones on various web sites, how they look up information on the internet to help them with school work instead of going to the library or asking their parents for help. Technology has taken over as a babysitter, a library, game playing, and social interactions with others instead of face-to-face interactions. There are no longer children in libraries or buying/reading books the old fashion way, you can find a book on the internet and read it and not learn how to use a library for studying anymore. Kids today do not know what it means to have peers/friends face-to-face, they are all no face internet friends. Social interactions no longer exist and conversation is typing not speaking. Technology has stepped over the line allowing our kids to be like machines and their development has been stunted.

Peers potential positive impact

Peers play a large positive part in a child’s life. Positive peer pressure is when someone’s peers influence them to do something positive or growth building. For example, peers who are committed to doing well in school or at sport can influence others to be more goals orientated. Also, peers who are kind, loyal or supportive influence others to be the same. Peers play a large role in the social and emotional development of children and adolescents. Their influence begins at an early age and increases through the teenage years. It is natural, healthy and important for children to have and rely on friends as they grow and mature.

Peers potential negative impact

Peer pressure in high school is both harmful and effective because it can lead to teen depression, high stress levels, negative behavior issues, and poor decision-making and outcomes. Peer pressure is something that causes conflict in an individual’s life. Below is a list of negative effects of peer pressure:

Schools potential positive impact

A good education makes an individual develop personally, socially as well as economically. Education helps us to do our daily life activities in the best possible ways. Education makes us dutiful. Education helps us to acquire new skills and knowledge that will impact our development in life. Education gives us a knowledge of the world around us and changes it into something better. It develops in us a perspective of looking at life. It helps us build opinions and have points of view on things in life. People debate over the subject of whether education is the only thing that gives knowledge.

Schools potential negative impact

There are 10 major challenges currently facing public schools, based on the perspective of many involved in the world of education today:

Not every school will face all of the challenges discussed, though the majority of schools across the country face more than one of these issues. The overall makeup of the community surrounding the school has a significant impact on the school itself. Schools facing a large portion of these issues will not see significant internal changes until external issues are addressed and changed within the community. Many of these issues can be deemed as societal issues, which can be nearly impossible for schools to overcome.